Linkages to physical health. In addition to the morality of homosexuality, the conflation of gender and sexuality in masculine socialization described above is also entwined in the homo-negative messages, [ 32 ] which further emasculates such men by making them incapable of meeting expectations for men in the church or in the larger community [ 3245 ]. Collins PH. Youth Resilience and Culture. The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.
Raymond HF, et al.
This relationship between religious affiliation and internalized homophobia has been described by minority stress theory which posits that health disparities affecting sexual minorities are the result of differential exposure to stigma, homophobia, and rejection [ 38 ] see Ch. There is legislation currently being proposed to congress known as the ENDA Employment Non-Discrimination Act that would include hindering discrimination based on sexual orientation, too. Garofalo R, et al. Clinical Psychology Review.
While Black churches are not a monolithic entity and do not uniformly object to homosexuality, many, like other religious institutions, do espouse proscriptive messages against same-sex behavior and identities [ 41 ].